Forage Crop Rotational Restriction


The following link summarizes the rotational restriction interval in months along with specific restrictions for forages grown after commonly used herbicide applications in small grains, soybeans and corn.

Download the Forage Crop Rotational Restriction Charts

Emergency Late Crop Planting


Approx latest date to plant (lbs. per acre) Ready for use
Sorghum June 25 8-12 Grain med. To hard dough
June 15 3-6 Mature
Sudangrass and July 1 6-8 (18-24" rows) Pasture 18-24"
Sudangrass Hyb. 15-25 drilled Green chop-heading
4-6 (32-42"rows)
Sudan-Soybean June 15 60 Soybeans Sudangrass-heading
Combination (Solid)
15 Sudangrass
Sorg-Sudangrass July 1-15 10-16 drilled Pasture 24-30"
Hybrids 6-8 (20" rows) Green chop-heading
4-6 (40" rows) Hay-waist high
Soybeans June 15 60-90 First pods filled
June 10 60 Mature
Corn June 15-July 5-10 Early dent
Millet July 5 20 Seed hard
July 10 15 Heading
Rape July 20 5 When 10" tall
Buchwheat July 10 35-40 Mature
Rye July 15 65-70 Plants well established

Pure Live Seed (PLS)


A purity of 99.50 x a germination of90% = 99.50 x .90 = 89.55 PLS

100 lbs. of this seed would contain 89.55 lbs. of pure live seed. If needed 80 PLS lbs. you would need 89.34 bulk lbs. (80.00/89.55)

Nitrate and Prussic Acid Poisoning


Plant nitrate poisoning in ruminants usually occurs as a result of consuming forages of high nitrite or nitrate content. Some plants have a tendency to exhibit high nitrate content and others under certain conditions, have the ability to accu­mulate large quantities of nitrates. Toxic levels of nitrate are sometimes found in common pasture grasses, especially during rapid growth at high rates of nitrogen fertility.

Corn grown under droughty conditions may concentrate nitrates in the base of the stalk. However, most losses occur in the Great Plains states when oats, barley or wheat are fed after a recent rain.

A variety of common weeds growing on marsh or muck soils, whi.ch have high nitrogen and relatively low phosphorus and potassium content, can cause nitrate poisoning problems in livestock. Low temperatures, limited sunlight, poor mineral sources and application of plant hormone type herbicides can also con­tribute to increased nitrate Levels. Other causes and aggravating conditions may be shallow wells and nitrate type fertilizers where animals feed. Animals fed a high ratio of high energy grain feed are better able to withstand high nitrate levels in forage.

Prussic acid poisoning symptoms are very similar to those of nitrate poi­soning. The most important cause of prussic acid poisoning among domestic animals is the ingestion of such plants as arrowgrass, johnsongrass, sudangrass, common sorghum or sorghum sudan hybrids, several berry type plants and flax. These plants contain cyanogenetic glycosides which, when acted upon by diges­tive enzymes, yield prussic acid. These conditions can also be aggravated by heavy nitrogen fertilization, wifting, trampling and plant diseases. Very young, rapidly developing plants contain greater quantities of these glycosides. Spraying of these plants with herbicides may also increase the toxic hazard.

Grazing plants such as sorghums should be avoided during periods of early growth ( under 18 inches) or directly after a frost. New growth after a frost should be avoided, as concentrations may be high. There is little danger from feeding well cured hay. The risk of prussic acid poisoning may be decreased by feeding of ground cereal grains or other feed before animals are turned out to graze.

Seed Planting Rate Guide

As a general rule, most native and tame grasses should be seeded at a minimum rate of 30 pure live seeds per square foot.

Kind of Seed Approx. No. Lbs./Acre Seeds/oz. Depth to Lbs./Bu. sow inches Time to plant
Alfalfa (Drilled) 10-15 14,175 60 1/2 April 1 to Sept. 1
(Broadcast) 16-20
Alsike Clover 6-8 42,525 60 1/2 April 1 to May 1
Barley 90-110 894 48 2 April to June
Berseem 10-12 April to May
Birdsfoot Trefoil 3-5 23,117 60 1/2 April 1 to May 1
Bluestem, Big & Little 6-10 1/2 May to June 15
Bluegrass (Pasture) 20-30 136,080 14 1/4 Spring-Summer-Fall
(Lawns) 4 Lbs./1000/sq/ft
Buckwheat 40-60 1,280 50 1-1/2 June to July
Buffalo Grass (Pasture) 6-8 1/2 May to June 15
(Lawns) 2 Lbs./1000/sq/ft
Bromegrass 15-25 8,500 14 1/2 Spring & Fall
Canarygrass (Reed) 5-10 34,020 44 1/2 Spring & Fall
Cane 8-12 1,450 56 1-1/2 May & June
Canola (Winter) 6-8 6,000 50 1/2 Fall
Emerald Crown Vetch 8-10 7,812 60 1/2 Early Spring
Fescue (Meadow) 20-25 14,175 24 1/2 Spring
Fescue (Tail) 15-25 14,175 24 1/2 Spring & Fall
Fescue (Creeping Red) 4 Lbs./1000/sq/ft 34,120 24 1/4 Spring & Fall
Flax 42-56 5,500 56 2 April to May
Garrison Creeping Foxtail 3-5 1/2 Spring
Green Needlegrass 6-8 1/2 April to May
Ladino Clover 3-5 55,010 60 1/2 April to June
Lawn Mix 4 Lbs./1000/sq/ft 18 1/4 Spring & Fall
Lespedeza (Hulled) 15-20 60 1/2 April
Mammoth Red Clover 6-12 17,010 60 1/2 April to May
Millet, Hay (Foxtail) 15-20 13,315 50 1 May to July
Millet, Grain (Proso) 20-30 5,110 56 1 May to July
Milo 8-10 56
Oats 64-96 1,012 32 2 March to April
Oats (Hull less) 48-64 32 March to April
Orchardgrass 15-20 40,852 14 1/2 Spring & Fall
Pasture Mixes 15-20 1/2 Spring & Fall
Rape (Dwarf Essex) 5-8 6,530 50 1 April to August
Red Clover - Medium 6-12 17,010 60 1/2 April to May
Red Top 6-10 311,850 32 1/2 April
Russian Wildrye 10-12 10,625 1/2 April
Rye (Grain) 56-84 1,140 56 2 Sept.
Ryegrass (Ann/Per) 30-40 14,175 24 1/2 Spring & Fall
Sunflowers 3-5 24 May to June
Side Oats Grama 8-10 1/2 June to August
Surghum Sudan (Rows) 10-12 1,450 56 1 May to July
(Broadcast) 20-30
Soybeans (Rows) 50-60 175 60 2 May 10 to May 30
(Broadcast) 90-120
Sudangrass 20-30 3,402 40 1 May to July
Sweetclover 6-10 16,160 60 1/2 April & May
Switchgrass 6-8 24,375 1/2 May to June
Timothy 8-15 70,875 45 1/2 April to Sept.
Turnip - Purple Top 3
Vetch, Hairy 10-20 60 1/2 Aug. to Sept.
Wheatgrass, Oahe Int. 10-15 6,250 20 1/2 Spring & Fall
Wheat (Spring) 60-75 950 60 1-1/2 April
Wheat (Winter) 60-75 906 60 1-1/2 Sept.

Featured Crops

Rye

Rye is a cold-tolerant grain that geminates in cool soil (34-40° F), making it a major fall-planted cover crop for winter erosion control. The top growth provides soil cover and suppresses weed.

Field Peas

Field peas are used in spring plantings as a source of organic matter and nitrogen.  In late summer, peas can be interseeded with oats to provide ground cover over the winter.

Forage Turnip and Rapeseed

Turnip and rape grow quickly and are good at reducing surface compaction while providing winter cover and fall weed suppression.

Oats

Spring-planted oats are used for green manure, while fall-planted oats provide winter-killed ground cover. They are also useful as a nurse crop with legumes, such as hairy vetch and peas, for forage, erosion control and weed suppression.

Buckwheat

Buckwheat is a short season annual with a delicate, fibrous root system. Since it establishes quickly, it is useful for weed suppression. It also mellows the soil while improving aggregate stability. It is a scavenger of phosphorus and calcium and mineralizes rock phosphate, making these nutrients available for later crops.

Sundangrass & Sorghum-Sudangrass

Sudangrass and sorghum-sudangrass are midsummer grasses suitable for short, 8-10 week plantings. These crops provide abundant root biomass, which is useful for increasing soil organic matter. Mowing encourages root growth. They suppress root knot nematodes and inhibit weed germination if densely sown.

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